Cherokee Morning Song
Archive for July 25th, 2008
Tags: Aaron Burr, Andrea Doria, Atom Bomb, Benito Mussolini, Bikini Atoll, Charles VI, China, Constantine, Crittendon-Johnson Resolution, Dean Martin, Engelbert Dollfuss, Henry IV, Hideyoshi, Il Duce, Isreal, Jerry Lewis, Jordan, King Vittorio Emanuele, Louis Bleroit, Louise Joy Brown, Puerto Rico, Rogue River, Russia, Salyut 7, Serbia, Stockholm, Svetlana Savitskaya, Test Tube Baby, Ulysses S Grant
World’s first “test tube baby” born
On this day in 1978, Louise Joy Brown, the world’s first baby to be conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) is born at Oldham and District General Hospital in Manchester, England, to parents Lesley and Peter Brown. The healthy baby was delivered shortly before midnight by caesarean section and weighed in at five pounds, 12 ounces.
“World’s first “test tube baby” born .” 2008. The History Channel website. 25 Jul 2008, 02:35 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=59456.
0326 – Constantine refused to carry out the traditional pagan sacrifices.
1394 – Charles VI of France issued a decree for the general expulsion of Jews from France.
1587 – Japanese strong-man Hideyoshi banned Christianity in Japan and ordered all Christians to leave.
1593 – France’s King Henry IV converted from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism.
1805 – Aaron Burr visited New Orleans with plans to establish a new country, with New Orleans as the capital city.
1845 – China granted Belgium equal trading rights with Britain, France and the United States.
1850 – In Worcester, MA, Harvard and Yale University freshmen met in the first intercollegiate billiards match.
1850 – Gold was discovered in the Rogue River in Oregon.
1866 – Ulysses S. Grant was named General of the Army. He was the first American officer to hold the rank.
1909 – French aviator Louis Bleriot flew across the English Channel in a monoplane. He traveled from Calais to Dover in 37 minutes. He was the first man to fly across the channel.
1914 – Russia declared that it would act to protect Serbian sovereignty.
1934 – Austrian chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss was shot and killed by Nazis.
1941 – The U.S. government froze all Japanese and Chinese assets.
1946 – The U.S. detonated an atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific. It was the first underwater test of the device.
1946 – Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis staged their first show as a team at Club 500 in Atlantic City, NJ.
1952 – Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth of the U.S.
1956 – The Italian liner Andrea Doria sank after colliding with the Swedish ship Stockholm off the New England coast. 51 people were killed.
1984 – Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to walk in space. She was aboard the orbiting space station Salyut 7.
1994 – Israel and Jordan formally ended the state of war that had existed between them since 1948.
Congress passes Crittenden-Johnson Resolution
The Crittenden-Johnson Resolution passes, declaring that the war is being waged for the reunion of the states and not to interfere with the institutions of the South, namely slavery. The measure was important in keeping the pivotal states of Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland in the Union.
This resolution should not be confused with the Crittenden Compromise—a plan circulated after the Southern states began seceding from the Union that proposed to protect slavery as an enticement to keep the Southern states from leaving—which was defeated in Congress. At the beginning of the war, many Northerners supported a war for to keep the Union together, but had no interest in advancing the cause of abolition. The Crittenden-Johnson plan was passed in 1861 to distinguish the issue of emancipation from the war’s purpose.
The common denominator of the two plans was Senator John Crittenden from Kentucky. Crittenden carried the torch of compromise borne so ably by another Kentucky senator, Henry Clay, who brokered such important deals as the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise of 1850 to keep the nation together. Clay died in 1852, but Crittenden carried on the spirit befitting the representative of a state deeply divided over the issue of slavery.
Although the measure was passed in Congress, it meant little when, just two weeks later, President Lincoln signed a confiscation act, allowing for the seizure of property—including slaves—from rebellious citizens. Still, for the first year and a half of the Civil War, reunification of the United States was the official goal of the North. It was not until Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation of September 1862 that slavery became a goal.
“Congress passes Crittenden-Johnson Resolution.” 2008. The History Channel website. 25 Jul 2008, 02:33 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=2258.
Mussolini falls from power
On this day in 1943, Benito Mussolini, fascist dictator of Italy, is voted out of power by his own Grand Council and arrested upon leaving a meeting with King Vittorio Emanuele, who tells Il Duce that the war is lost. Mussolini responded to it all with an uncharacteristic meekness.
“Mussolini falls from power.” 2008. The History Channel website. 25 Jul 2008, 02:36 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=6530.