Archive for March 25th, 2008

25
Mar
08

Clear Lake

Clear Lake 1

Clear Lake 2

Clear Lake 3

Clear Lake 4

Advertisements
25
Mar
08

On This Day, 3-25-08: Howl

Soviets announce withdrawal from Iran

In conclusion to an extremely tense situation of the early Cold War, the Soviet Union announces that its troops in Iran will be withdrawn within six weeks. The Iranian crisis was one of the first tests of power between the United States and the Soviet Union in the postwar world.

The Iranian crisis began during World War II. In 1942, Iran signed an agreement by which British and Soviet troops were allowed into the country in order to defend the oil-rich nation from possible German attack. American troops were also soon in Iran. The 1942 treaty stated that all foreign troops would withdraw within six months after the end of the war. In 1944, however, both Great Britain and the United States began to press the Iranian government for oil concessions and the Soviets thereupon demanded concessions of their own. By 1945, the oil situation was still unsettled, but the war was coming to an end and the American attitude toward the Soviet Union had changed dramatically.

The new administration of Harry S. Truman, which came to power when Franklin D. Roosevelt died in April 1945, decided that the Soviets were not to be trusted and were bent on expansion. Therefore, a policy of “toughness” was adopted toward the former wartime ally. Iran came to be a test case for this new policy. The Soviets had decided to take action in Iran. Fearing that the British and Americans were conspiring to deny Russia its proper sphere of influence in Iran, the Soviets came to the assistance of an Iranian rebel group in the northern regions of the country. In early 1946, the United States complained to the United Nations about the situation in Iran and accused the Soviets of interfering with a sovereign nation. When the March 2, 1946 deadline for the withdrawal of foreign troops from Iran passed and the Soviets were still in place, a crisis began to develop.

A major diplomatic confrontation was avoided when the Soviets announced on March 25, 1946, that they would be withdrawing their forces within six weeks. President Truman bragged that his threats of a possible military confrontation had been the deciding factor, but that seems unlikely. The Soviet Union and Iran had reached an agreement that gave the Soviets an oil concession in Iran. With this promise in hand, the Soviets kept their part of the bargain and moved their troops out of Iran in April 1946. Almost immediately, the Iranian government reneged on the oil deal and, with U.S. aid and advice, crushed the revolt in northern Iran. The Soviets were furious, but refrained from reintroducing their armed forces into Iran for fear of creating an escalating conflict with the United States and Great Britain. The Iranian crisis, and the suspicion and anger it created between the United States and the Soviet Union, helped set the tone for the developing Cold War.

“Soviets announce withdrawal from Iran.” 2008. The History Channel website. 23 Mar 2008, 02:18 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=2617.

1306 – Robert the Bruce was crowned king of Scotland.

1634 – Lord Baltimore founded the Catholic colony of Maryland.

1655 – Puritans jailed Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the colony of Maryland.

1700 – England, France and Netherlands ratify the 2nd Extermination Treaty.

1802 – France, Netherlands, Spain and England signed the Peace of Amiens.

1813 – The frigate USS Essex flew the first U.S. flag in battle in the Pacific.

1865 – During the American Civil War, Confederate forces captured Fort Stedman in Virginia.

1900 – The U.S. Socialist Party was formed in Indianapolis.

1905 – Russia received Japan’s terms for peace.

1911 – In New York City, 146 women were killed in fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City. The owners of the company were indicted on manslaughter charges because some of the employees had been behind locked doors in the factory. The owners were later acquitted and in 1914 they were ordered to pay damages to each of the twenty-three families that had sued.

1931 – The Scottsboro Boys were arrested in Alabama. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/scottsboro/SB_acct.html

1960 – A guided missile was launched from a nuclear powered submarine for the first time.

1989 – In Paris, the Louvre reopened with I.M. Pei’s new courtyard pyramid.

1993 – President de Klerk admitted that South Africa had built six nuclear bombs, but said that they had since been dismantled.

Blackboard Jungle film released

Blackboard Jungle is released on this day in 1955. The film associated youth violence and anarchy with rock and roll, a linkage that would become a persistent underlying theme in the genre. The movie’s theme song, “Rock Around the Clock,” by Bill Haley and the Comets, became a top seller.

Blackboard Jungle film released.” 2008. The History Channel website. 23 Mar 2008, 02:20 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=3107.

U.S. Customs seizes Howl http://members.tripod.com/~Sprayberry/poems/howl.txt

The U.S. Customs Department confiscates 520 copies of Allen Ginsberg’s book Howl, which had been printed in England. Officials alleged that the book was obscene.

City Lights, a publishing company and bookstore in San Francisco owned by poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti, proceeded to publish the book in the fall of 1956. The publication led to Ferlinghetti’s arrest on obscenity charges. Ferlinghetti was bailed out by the American Civil Liberties Union, which led the legal defense. Nine literary experts testified at the trial that the poem was not obscene, and Ferlinghetti was found not guilty.

Howl, which created a literary earthquake among the literary community when Ginsberg first read the poem in 1955, still stands as an important monument to the countercultural fervor of the late 1950s and ’60s. Ginsberg stayed at the forefront of numerous liberal movements throughout his life and became a well-loved lecturer at universities around the country. He continued to write and read poetry until his death from liver cancer in 1997.

“U.S. Customs seizes Howl.” 2008. The History Channel website. 23 Mar 2008, 02:21 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=3918.




March 2008
S M T W T F S
« Feb   Apr »
 1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031  

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 281 other followers

Advertisements