Archive for September 12th, 2008

12
Sep
08

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12
Sep
08

On This Day, 9-12-2008: Boston Integration

Violence in Boston over racial busing

In Boston, Massachusetts, opposition to court-ordered school “busing” turns violent on the opening day of classes. School buses carrying African American children were pelted with eggs, bricks, and bottles, and police in combat gear fought to control angry white protesters besieging the schools.

U.S. District Judge Arthur Garrity ordered the busing of African American students to predominantly white schools and white students to black schools in an effort to integrate Boston’s geographically segregated public schools. In his June 1974 ruling in Morgan v. Hennigan, Garrity stated that Boston’s de facto school segregation discriminated against black children. The beginning of forced busing on September 12 was met with massive protests, particularly in South Boston, the city’s main Irish-Catholic neighborhood. Protests continued unabated for months, and many parents, white and black, kept their children at home. In October, the National Guard was mobilized to enforce the federal desegregation order.

“Violence in Boston over racial busing.” 2008. The History Channel website. 12 Sep 2008, 03:28 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5340.

On This Day

1609 – English explorer Henry Hudson sailed down what is now known as the Hudson River.

1814 – During the War of 1812, the Battle of North Point was fought in Maryland.

1916 – Adelina and August Van Buren finished the first successful transcontinental motorcycle tour to be attempted by two women. They started in New York City on July 5, 1916.

1918 – During World War I, At the Battle of St. Mihiel, U.S. Army personnel operate tanks for the first time. The tanks were French-built.

1938 – In a speech, Adolf Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia.

1943 – During World War II, Benito Mussolini was taken by German paratroopers from the Italian government that was holding him.

1953 – U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier.

1953 – Nikita Krushchev was elected as the first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1974 – Emperor Haile Selassie was taken out of power by Ethiopia’s military after ruling for 58 years.

1980 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini listed four conditions for the release of American hostages taken on November 4, 1979. The conditions were the unfreezing of Iranian assets, the return of the shah’s wealth to Iran, the cancellation of U.S. claims against Iran, and a U.S. pledge of noninterference in Iran’s internal affairs.

1992 – Dr. Mae Carol Jemison became the first African-American woman in space. She was the payload specialist aboard the space shuttle Endeavor. Also onboard were Mission Specialist N. Jan Davis and Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Mark C. Lee. They were the first married couple to fly together in space. And, Mamoru Mohri became the first Japanese person to fly into space.

Situation deteriorates in South Vietnam

North Vietnamese Premier Pham Van Dong tells the French Consul: “You must remember we will be in Saigon tomorrow.” In November, he would tell the Canadian Commissioner: “We will drive the Americans into the sea.” The U.S. Embassy in Saigon eventually passed these remarks along to Washington as evidence of the deteriorating situation in South Vietnam. The United States had taken over from the French in the effort to stem the tide of communism in Southeast Asia. When President John F. Kennedy took office in 1961, he was faced with a dilemma in Laos and Vietnam. He decided that the line against communism had to be drawn in Vietnam and therefore he increased the number of military advisers to President Ngo Dinh Diem’s government in Saigon. By the time of his assassination in November 1963, there would be more than 16,000 U.S. advisers in South Vietnam. Under his successor, Lyndon Johnson, there would be a steady escalation of the war that ultimately resulted in the commitment of more than half a million U.S. troops in South Vietnam.

“Situation deteriorates in South Vietnam.” 2008. The History Channel website. 12 Sep 2008, 03:21 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1353.




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