Posts Tagged ‘Alexander Graham Bell

07
Mar
09

On This Day, March 7: The Rhineland

March 7, 1936

Hitler reoccupies the Rhineland

Nazi leader Adolf Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Pact by sending German military forces into the Rhineland, a demilitarized zone along the Rhine River in western Germany.

The Treaty of Versailles, signed in July 1919–eight months after the guns fell silent in World War I–called for stiff war reparation payments and other punishing peace terms for defeated Germany. Having been forced to sign the treaty, the German delegation to the peace conference indicated its attitude by breaking the ceremonial pen. As dictated by the Treaty of Versailles, Germany’s military forces were reduced to insignificance and the Rhineland was to be demilitarized.

In 1925, at the conclusion of a European peace conference held in Switzerland, the Locarno Pact was signed, reaffirming the national boundaries decided by the Treaty of Versailles and approving the German entry into the League of Nations. The so-called “spirit of Locarno” symbolized hopes for an era of European peace and goodwill, and by 1930 German Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann had negotiated the removal of the last Allied troops in the demilitarized Rhineland.

However, just four years later, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party seized full power in Germany, promising vengeance against the Allied nations that had forced the Treaty of Versailles on the German people. In 1935, Hitler unilaterally canceled the military clauses of the treaty and in March 1936 denounced the Locarno Pact and began remilitarizing of the Rhineland. Two years later, Nazi Germany burst out of its territories, absorbing Austria and portions of Czechoslovakia. In 1939, Hitler invaded Poland, leading to the outbreak of World War II in Europe.

“Hitler reoccupies the Rhineland.” 2009. The History Channel website. 7 Mar 2009, 05:20 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=4815.

On This Day

0322 BC – Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, died.

1774 – The British closed the port of Boston to all commerce.

1848 – In Hawaii, the Great Mahele was signed.

1850 – U.S. Senator Daniel Webster endorsed the Compromise of 1850 as a method of preserving the Union.

1876 – Alexander Graham Bell received a patent (U.S. Patent No. 174,465) for his telephone.

1906 – Finland granted women the right to vote.

1918 – Finland signed an alliance treaty with Germany.

1925 – The Soviet Red Army occupied Outer Mongolia.

1945 – During World War II, U.S. forces crossed the Rhine River at Remagen, Germany.

1954 – Russia appeared for the first time in ice-hockey competition. Russia defeated Canada 7-2 to win the world ice-hockey title in Stockholm, Sweden.

1965 – State troopers and a sheriff’s posse broke up a march by civil rights demonstrators in Selma, AL.

1971 – A thousand U.S. planes bombed Cambodia and Laos.

1989 – Poland accused the Soviet Union of a World War II massacre in Katyn.

1994 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that parodies that poke fun at an original work can be considered “fair use” that does not require permission from the copyright holder.

March 7, 1941

British forces arrive in Greece

On this day, a British expeditionary force from North Africa lands in Greece.

In October 1940, Mussolini’s army, already occupying Albania, invaded Greece in what proved to be a disastrous military campaign for the Duce’s forces. Mussolini surprised everyone with this move against Greece, but he was not to be upstaged by recent Nazi conquests. According to Hitler, who was stunned by a move that he knew would be a strategic blunder, Mussolini should have concentrated on North Africa by continuing the advance into Egypt. The Italians paid for Mussolini’s hubris, as the Greeks succeeded in pushing the Italian invaders back into Albania after just one week, and the Axis power spent the next three months fighting for its life in a series of defensive battles.

Mussolini’s precipitate maneuver frustrated Hitler because it opened an opportunity for the British to enter Greece and establish an airbase in Athens, putting the Brits within striking distance of valuable oil reserves in Romania, which Hitler relied upon for his war machine. It also meant that Hitler would have to divert forces from North Africa, a high strategic priority, to bail Mussolini out of Greece-and postpone Hitler’s planned invasion of the Soviet Union.

The Brits indeed saw an opening in Greece, and on March 7, 1941, Prime Minister Winston Churchill diverted troops from Egypt and sent 58,000 British and Aussie troops to occupy the Olympus-Vermion line. But the Brits would be blown out of the Pelopponesus Peninsula when Hitler’s forces invaded on the ground and from the air in April. Thousands of British and Australian forces were captured there and on Crete, where German paratroopers landed in May.

“British forces arrive in Greece.” 2009. The History Channel website. 7 Mar 2009, 05:20 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=6734.

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04
Aug
08

On This Day, 8-4-08: Anne Frank

Anne Frank and her family arrested by Gestapo

On this day in 1944, a German-born Jewish girl and her family, who had been hiding in German-occupied Holland, are found by the Gestapo and transported to various concentration camps. The young girl’s diary of her time in hiding was found after her death and published. The Diary of Anne Frank remains one of the most moving testimonies to the invincibility of the human spirit in the face of inhuman cruelty.

“Anne Frank and her family arrested by Gestapo.” 2008. The History Channel website. 3 Aug 2008, 01:54 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=6540.

 

On This Day

1735 – Freedom of the press was established with an acquittal of John Peter Zenger. The writer of the New York Weekly Journal had been charged with seditious libel by the royal governor of New York. The jury said that “the truth is not libelous.”

1753 – George Washington became a Master Mason.

1892 – Andrew and Abby Borden were axed to death in their home in Fall River, MA. Lizzie, Andrew’s daughter, was accused of the killings but was later acquitted.

1914 – Britain declared war on Germany in World War I. The U.S. proclaimed its neutrality.

1922 – The death of Alexander Graham Bell, two days earlier, was recognized by AT&T and the Bell Systems by shutting down all of its switchboards and switching stations. The shutdown affected 13 million phones.

1949 – An earthquake in Ecuador destroyed 50 towns and killed more than 6000 people.

1964 – The bodies of Michael H. Schwerner, James E. Chaney, and Andrew Goodman were found in an earthen dam in Mississippi. The three were civil rights workers. They had disappeared on June 21, 1964.

1972 – Arthur Bremer was found guilty of shooting George Wallace, the governor of Alabama. Bremer was sentenced to 63 years in prison.

1977 – U.S. President Carter signed the measure that established the Department of Energy.

1993 – Stacey Koon and Laurence Powell, Los Angeles police officers were sentenced to 2 1/2 years in prison for violating Rodney King’s civil rights.

1997 – Teamsters began a 15-day strike against UPS (United Parcel Service). The strikers eventually won an increase in full-time positions and defeated a proposed reorganization of the companies pension plan.

 

Union generals squabble outside of Atlanta

A Union operation against Confederate defenses around Atlanta, Georgia, stalls when infighting erupts between Yankee generals.

The problem arose when Union General William T. Sherman began stretching his force—consisting of the Army of the Ohio, the Army of the Tennessee, and the Army of the Cumberland—west of Ezra Church, the site of a major battle on July 28, to Utoy Creek, west of Atlanta. The Confederate army inside of Atlanta, commanded by General John Bell Hood, had attacked Sherman’s army three times in late July and could no longer mount an offensive operation. Sherman now moved General John Schofield, who commanded the Army of the Ohio, from the east side of Atlanta to the west in an attempt to cut the rail lines that supplied the city from the south and west. Schofield’s force arrived at Utoy Creek on August 3.

The Army of the Cumberland’s Fourteenth Corps, commanded by General John Palmer, had also been sent by Sherman to assist Schofield. But on August 4, the operation came to a standstill because Palmer refused to accept orders from anyone but General George Thomas, commander of the Army of the Cumberland. Although Schofield was the director of the operation, Palmer felt that Schofield was his junior. The two men had been promoted to major general on the same day in 1862, but Schofield’s appointment had expired four months later. Schofield had been reappointed with his original date of promotion, November 29, 1862, but Palmer insisted that the reappointment placed Schofield behind him in seniority.

“Union generals squabble outside of Atlanta.” 2008. The History Channel website. 3 Aug 2008, 01:55 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=2272.

06
Apr
08

On This Day, 4-6-08: Shiloh

Battle of Shiloh begins

The Civil War explodes in the west as the armies of Union General Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston collide at Shiloh, near Pittsburgh Landing in Tennessee. The Battle of Shiloh became one of the bloodiest engagements of the war, and the level of violence shocked North and South alike.

For six months, Yankee troops had been working their way up the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. Kentucky was firmly in Union hands, and now the Federals controlled much of Tennessee, including the capital at Nashville. Grant scored major victories at Forts Henry and Donelson in February, forcing Johnston to gather the scattered Rebel forces at Corinth in northern Mississippi. Grant brought his army, 42,000 strong, to rendezvous with General Don Carlos Buell and his 20,000 troops. Grant’s objective was Corinth, a vital rail center that if captured would give the Union total control of the region. Twenty miles away, Johnston lurked at Corinth with 45,000 soldiers.

Johnston did not wait for Grant and Buell to combine their forces. He advanced on April 3, delayed by rains and muddy roads that also slowed Buell. In the early dawn of April 6, a Yankee patrol found the Confederates poised for battle just a mile from the main Union army. Johnston attacked, driving the surprised bluecoats back near a small church called Shiloh, meaning “place of peace.” Throughout the day, the Confederates battered the Union army, driving it back towards Pittsburgh Landing and threatening to trap it against the Tennessee River. Many troops on both sides had no experience in battle. The chances for a complete Confederate victory diminished as troops from Buell’s army began arriving, and Grant’s command on the battlefield shored up the sagging Union line. In the middle of the afternoon, Johnston rode forward to direct the Confederate attack and was struck in the leg by a bullet. The ball severed an artery, and Johnston quickly bled to death. He became the highest ranking general on either side killed during the war. General Pierre G. T. Beauregard assumed control, and he halted the advance at nightfall. The Union army was driven back two miles, but it did not break.

The arrival of additional troops from Buell’s army provided Grant with reinforcements, while the Confederates were worn out from their march. The next day, Grant pushed the Confederates back to Corinth for a major Union victory.

“Battle of Shiloh begins,” The History Channel website, 2008, http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=2161 [accessed Apr 5, 2008]

1199 – English King Richard I was killed by an arrow at the siege of the castle of Chaluz in France.

1789 – The first U.S. Congress began regular sessions at the Federal Hall in New York City.

1830 – Joseph Smith and five others organized the Mormon Church in Seneca, NY.

1830 – Relations between the Texans and Mexico reached a new low when Mexico would not allow further emigration into Texas by settlers from the U.S.

1862 – The American Civil War Battle of Shiloh began in Tennessee.

1865 – At the Battle of Sayler’s Creek, a third of Lee’s army was cut off by Union troops pursuing him to Appomattox.

1875 – Alexander Graham Bell was granted a patent for the multiple telegraph, which sent two signals at the same time.

1909 – Americans Robert Peary and Matthew Henson claimed to be the first men to reach the North Pole.

1917 – The U.S. Congress approved a declaration of war on Germany and entered World War I on the Allied side.

1924 – Four planes leave Seattle on the first successful flight around the world.

1938 – The United States recognized the German conquest of Austria.

1941 – German forces invaded Greece and Yugoslavia.

1965 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized the use of ground troops in combat operations in Vietnam.

1998 – Federal researchers in the U.S. announced that daily tamoxifen pills could cut breast cancer risk among high-risk women.

Battle of Sayler’s Creek

Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia fights its last major battle as it retreats westward from Richmond. Lee’s army tried to hold off the pursuing Yankees of General Ulysses S. Grant’s Army of the Potomac. In fierce hand-to-hand fighting around Sayler’s Creek, the Yankees captured 1,700 Confederate troops and 300 supply wagons. As Lee watched his men staggering away from the battlefield, he cried, “My God, has the army been dissolved?”

“Battle of Sayler’s Creek.” 2008. The History Channel website. 5 Apr 2008, 11:51 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=2162.

The secret of masonry is to keep a secret.
Joseph Smith, Jr.

If my life is of no value to my friends it is of none to myself.
Joseph Smith, Jr.

07
Mar
08

On This Day, 3-7-08: The Rhineland

Hitler reoccupies the Rhineland

Nazi leader Adolf Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Pact by sending German military forces into the Rhineland, a demilitarized zone along the Rhine River in western Germany.

The Treaty of Versailles, signed in July 1919–eight months after the guns fell silent in World War I–called for stiff war reparation payments and other punishing peace terms for defeated Germany. Having been forced to sign the treaty, the German delegation to the peace conference indicated its attitude by breaking the ceremonial pen. As dictated by the Treaty of Versailles, Germany’s military forces were reduced to insignificance and the Rhineland was to be demilitarized.

In 1925, at the conclusion of a European peace conference held in Switzerland, the Locarno Pact was signed, reaffirming the national boundaries decided by the Treaty of Versailles and approving the German entry into the League of Nations. The so-called “spirit of Locarno” symbolized hopes for an era of European peace and goodwill, and by 1930 German Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann had negotiated the removal of the last Allied troops in the demilitarized Rhineland.

However, just four years later, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party seized full power in Germany, promising vengeance against the Allied nations that had forced the Treaty of Versailles on the German people. In 1935, Hitler unilaterally canceled the military clauses of the treaty and in March 1936 denounced the Locarno Pact and began remilitarizing of the Rhineland. Two years later, Nazi Germany burst out of its territories, absorbing Austria and portions of Czechoslovakia. In 1939, Hitler invaded Poland, leading to the outbreak of World War II in Europe.  http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=4815

On This Day, 3-7-08

0322 BC – Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, died.

1774 – The British closed the port of Boston to all commerce.

1850 – U.S. Senator Daniel Webster endorsed the Compromise of 1850 as a method of preserving the Union. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html

1876 – Alexander Graham Bell received a patent (U.S. Patent No. 174,465) for his telephone.

1901 – It was announced that blacks had been found enslaved in parts of South Carolina.

1904 – The Japanese bombed the Russian town of Vladivostok.

1904 – In Springfield, OH, a mob broke into a jail and shot a black man accused of murder.

1906 – Finland granted women the right to vote.

1927 – A Texas law that banned Negroes from voting was ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.

1945 – During World War II, U.S. forces crossed the Rhine River at Remagen, Germany. http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/this_day_in_history/this_day_March_7.php

1955 – Phyllis Diller made her debut at the Purple Onion in San Francisco, CA.

1965 – State troopers and a sheriff’s posse broke up a march by civil rights demonstrators in Selma, AL.

1968 – The Battle of Saigon came to an end.

1971 – A thousand U.S. planes bombed Cambodia and Laos.

1989 – Poland accused the Soviet Union of a World War II massacre in Katyn. http://www.katyn.org.au/

1994 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that parodies that poke fun at an original work can be considered “fair use” that does not require permission from the copyright holder.

Five letters pass between Abigail and John Adams

On this day in 1777, Continental Congressman John Adams writes three letters to and receives two letters from his wife, Abigail. He is with Congress in Philadelphia, while she maintains their farm in Braintree, Massachusetts.

The remarkable correspondence between Abigail and John Adams—numbering 1,160 letters in total–covered topics ranging from politics and military strategy to household economy and family health. Their mutual respect and adoration served as evidence that even in an age when women were unable to vote, there were nonetheless marriages in which wives and husbands were true intellectual and emotional equals. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=303

1917: February Revolution begins

In Russia, the February Revolution (known as such because of Russia’s use of the Julian calendar) begins when riots and strikes break out in Petrograd over the scarcity of food. Within three days, the strike was general in the capital, and the Petrograd army garrison was called out to restore order. The army, demoralized after three years of fighting along the Eastern Front in World War I, defected to the cause of the revolutionaries. On March 15, Czar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate. A coalition of workers’ and soldiers’ committees known as the Soviet joined with moderate provisional leaders in forming a new government, and an end to violent revolutionary activity was urged. Meanwhile, Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik revolutionary party, left his exile in Switzerland and crossed German enemy lines to return home and take control of the revolution. http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/this_day_in_history/this_day_March_8.php

Arbitrary power is like most other things which are very hard, very liable to be broken.
Abigail Adams

Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of husbands. Remember all men would be tyrants if they could.
Abigail Adams

14
Feb
08

On This Day 2-14-08 Valentines Day

1939: Bismarck launched

On this day, the German navy launches the 823-foot battleship Bismarck at Hamburg. Adolf Hitler hoped that the state of the art Bismarck would herald the rebirth of the German surface battle fleet. However, after the outbreak of war Britain closely guarded ocean routes from Germany to the Atlantic Ocean, and only U-boats moved freely through the war zone. In May 1941, the order was given for the Bismarck to break out into the Atlantic. Once in the safety of the open ocean, the battleship would be almost impossible to track down; all the while wreaking havoc on Allied convoys to Britain.

Learning of its movement, Britain sent almost the entire British home fleet in pursuit. On May 24, the British battle cruiser Hood and battleship Prince of Wales intercepted it near Iceland. In a ferocious battle, the Hood exploded and sank, and all but three of the 1,421 crewmen were killed. The Bismarck escaped, but because it was leaking fuel, it fled for occupied France. On May 26, it was sighted and crippled by British aircraft, and on May 27, three British warships descended on the Bismarck and finished it off. The German death toll was over 2,000.

http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/this_day_in_history/

1778 – The Stars and Stripes was carried to a foreign port, in France, for the first time. It was aboard the American ship Ranger.

1849 – The first photograph of a U.S. President, while in office, was taken by Matthew Brady in New York City. President James Polk was the subject of the picture.

1859 – Oregon became the 33rd member of the Union.

1876 – Alexander Graham Bell filed an application for a patent for the telephone. It was officially issued on March 7, 1876.

1900 – Russia imposed tighter imperial control over Finland in response to an international petition for Finland’s freedom.

1900 – In South Africa, British Gen. Roberts invaded Orange Free State with 20,000 troops.

1903 – The U.S. Department of Commerce and Labor was established.

1912 – The first diesel engine submarine was commissioned in Groton, CT.

1912 – Arizona was admitted as the 48th U.S. state.

1920 – The League of Women Voters was founded in Chicago. The first president of the organization was Maude Wood Park.

1929 – The “St. Valentine’s Day Massacre” took place in Chicago, IL. Seven gangsters who were rivals of Al Capone were killed.

1946 – ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was unveiled. The device, built at the University of Pennsylvania, was the world’s first general purpose electronic computer.

1967 – A boy kissed a girl in a kindergarten classroom.

1989 – Union Carbide agreed to pay $470 million to the government of India. The court-ordered settlement was a result of the 1984 Bhopal gas leak disaster.

All men are by nature equal, made all of the same earth by one Workman; and however we deceive ourselves, as dear unto God is the poor peasant as the mighty prince.
Plato

At the touch of love everyone becomes a poet.
Plato

Life must be lived as play.
Plato

25
Jan
08

On This Day 1-25-08

1533 – England’s King Henry VIII secretly married his second wife Anne Boleyn. Boleyn later gave birth to Elizabeth I.

1579 – The Treaty of Utrecht was signed marking the beginning of the Dutch Republic.

1799 – Eliakim Spooner patented the seeding machine.

1881 – Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell and others signed an agreement to organize the Oriental Telephone Company.

1890 – The United Mine Workers of America was founded.

1915 – In New York, Alexander Graham Bell spoke to his assistant in San Francisco, inaugurating the first transcontinental telephone service.

1924 – The 1st Winter Olympic Games were inaugurated in Chamonix in the French Alps.

1937 – NBC radio presented the first broadcast of “The Guiding Light.” The show remained on radio until 1956 and began on CBS-TV in 1952.

1946 – The United Mine Workers rejoined the American Federation of Labor.

1961 – John F. Kennedy presented the first live presidential news conference from Washington, DC. The event was carried on radio and television.

1971 – Charles Manson and three female members of his “family” were found guilty of one count of conspiracy to commit murder and seven counts of murder in the first degree. They were all sentenced to life imprisonment for the 1969 killings.

1971 – Maj. Gen. Idi Amin led a coup that deposed Milton Obote and became president of Uganda.

1981 – Jiang Qing, Mao’s widow, was tried for treason and received a death sentence, which was subsequently commuted to life imprisonment.

1981 – The 52 Americans held hostage by Iran for 444 days arrived in the United States and were reunited with their families.

1995 – Russia almost launches a nuclear attack after a Norwegian research rocket is mistaken for missile attack by the Russian early-warning radar station.

2001 – A minor earthquake hit northeastern Ohio. The quake measured only 4.2 on the Richter Scale.

“Sometimes we stare so long at a door that is closing that we see too late the one that is open.”

Alexander Graham Bell quote

“The nation that secures control of the air will ultimately control the world.”

Alexander Graham Bell quote

Seriously!  Go here: http://uncyclopedia.org/wiki/All_work_and_no_play_makes_Jack_a_dull_boy




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