Posts Tagged ‘Argentina

02
Apr
08

On This Day, 4-2-08: Falklands Islands

Argentina invades Falklands

On April 2, 1982, Argentina invades the Falklands Islands, a British colony since 1892 and British possession since 1833. Argentine amphibious forces rapidly overcame the small garrison of British marines at the town of Stanley on East Falkland and the next day seized the dependent territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich group. The 1,800 Falkland Islanders, mostly English-speaking sheep farmers, awaited a British response.

The Falkland Islands, located about 300 miles off the southern tip of Argentina, had long been claimed by the British. British navigator John Davis may have sighted the islands in 1592, and in 1690 British Navy Captain John Strong made the first recorded landing on the islands. He named them after Viscount Falkland, who was the First Lord of the Admiralty at the time. In 1764, French navigator Louis-Antoine de Bougainville founded the islands’ first human settlement, on East Falkland, which was taken over by the Spanish in 1767. In 1765, the British settled West Falkland but left in 1774 for economic reasons. Spain abandoned its settlement in 1811.

In 1816 Argentina declared its independence from Spain and in 1820 proclaimed its sovereignty over the Falklands. The Argentines built a fort on East Falkland, but in 1832 it was destroyed by the USS Lexington in retaliation for the seizure of U.S. seal ships in the area. In 1833, a British force expelled the remaining Argentine officials and began a military occupation. In 1841, a British lieutenant governor was appointed, and by the 1880s a British community of some 1,800 people on the islands was self-supporting. In 1892, the wind-blown Falkland Islands were collectively granted colonial status.

For the next 90 years, life on the Falklands remained much unchanged, despite persistent diplomatic efforts by Argentina to regain control of the islands. In 1981, the Falkland Islanders voted in a referendum to remain British, and it seemed unlikely that the Falklands would ever revert to Argentine rule. Meanwhile, in Argentina, the military junta led by Lieutenant General Leopoldo Galtieri was suffering criticism for its oppressive rule and economic management, and planned the Falklands invasion as a means of promoting patriotic feeling and propping up its regime.

In March 1982, Argentine salvage workers occupied South Georgia Island, and a full-scale invasion of the Falklands began on April 2. Under orders from their commanders, the Argentine troops inflicted no British casualties, despite suffering losses to their own units. Nevertheless, Britain was outraged, and Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher assembled a naval task force of 30 warships to retake the islands. As Britain is 8,000 miles from the Falklands, it took several weeks for the British warships to arrive. On April 25, South Georgia Island was retaken, and after several intensive naval battles fought around the Falklands, British troops landed on East Falkland on May 21. After several weeks of fighting, the large Argentine garrison at Stanley surrendered on June 14, effectively ending the conflict.

Britain lost five ships and 256 lives in the fight to regain the Falklands, and Argentina lost its only cruiser and 750 lives. Humiliated in the Falklands War, the Argentine military was swept from power in 1983, and civilian rule was restored. In Britain, Margaret Thatcher’s popularity soared after the conflict, and her Conservative Party won a landslide victory in 1983 parliamentary elections.

“Argentina invades Falklands.” 2008. The History Channel website. 2 Apr 2008, 05:22 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=4884.

1513 – Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida.

1801 – During the Napoleonic Wars, the Danish fleet was destroyed by the British at the Battle of Copenhagen.

1865 – Confederate President Davis and most of his Cabinet fled the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA.

1902 – The first motion picture theatre opened in Los Angeles with the name Electric Theatre.

1917 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson presented a declaration of war against Germany to the U.S. Congress.

1958 – The National Advisory Council on Aeronautics was renamed NASA.

1963 – Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King began the first non-violent campaign in Birmingham, AL.

1966 – South Vietnamese troops joined in demonstrations at Hue and Da Nang for an end to military rule.

1967 – In Peking, hundreds of thousands demonstrated against Mao foe Liu Shao-chi.

1972 – Burt Reynolds appeared nude in “Cosmopolitan” magazine.

1984 – John Thompson became the first black coach to lead his team to the NCAA college basketball championship.

1987 – The speed limit on U.S. interstate highways was increased to 65 miles per hour in limited areas.

1996 – Lech Walesa resumed his old job as an electrician at the Gdansk shipyard. He was the former Solidarity union leader who became Poland’s first post-war democratic president.

Democratic nations must try to find ways to starve the terrorist and the hijacker of the oxygen of publicity on which they depend.
Margaret Thatcher

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24
Feb
08

On This Day, 2-24-08: Juan Domingo Perón

1946: Perón elected in Argentina

Juan Domingo Perón, the controversial former vice president of Argentina, is elected president. He was imprisoned the year before, but appeals from workers and his charismatic wife, Eva Duarte de Perón, forced his release. As president, Perón constructed an impressive populist alliance, and his vision of self-sufficiency for Argentina won him wide support.

However, he also became increasingly authoritarian, jailing political opponents and restricting freedom of the press. In 1952, his greatest political resource, his wife Evita, died, and support for him dissolved. Three years later, he was ousted in a military coup. In 1973, after 18 years of exile, he returned to Argentina and again won the presidency. His second wife, Isabel de Martinez Perón, was elected as vice president and in 1974 succeeded him upon his death.

http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/this_day_in_history/this_day_February_24.php

1803 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled itself to be the final interpreter of all constitutional issues.

1821 – Mexico declared independence from Spain.

1848 – The Communist Manifesto was published.

1857 – The first shipment of perforated postage stamps was received by the U.S. Government.

1868 – The U.S. House of Representatives impeached President Andrew Johnson due to his attempt to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. The U.S. Senate later acquitted Johnson.

1942 – The Voice of America (VOA) aired for the first time.  http://www.voanews.com/english/portal.cfm

1945 – During World War II, the Philippine capital of Manilla, was liberated by U.S. soldiers.

1988 – The U.S. Supreme Court overturned a $200,000 award to Rev. Jerry Falwell that had been won against “Hustler” magazine. The ruling expanded legal protections for parody and satire.

1989 – Iran’s Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini sentenced Salman Rushdie to death for his novel “The Satanic Verses”. A bounty of one to three-million-dollars was also put on Rushidie’s head.

1992 – “Wayne’s World” opened in U.S. theaters.

News from the Voice of America

Iraqi Kurdistan Warns Turkey, Urges Baghdad and Washington to Stop Incursion

By Daniel Schearf
Irbil, Iraq
23 February 2008

The Kurdish regional government of Iraq has warned Turkey not to target civilian areas during its military operations there against Kurdish rebels of the Kurdistan Workers Party, or PKK . Kurdish officials are asking for Baghdad and Washington to help stop the conflict. Daniel Schearf reports from the northern Iraqi city of Irbil.

In this photo released by the Turkish Military, Turkish commandos are seen during an operation in an undisclosed location on the Turkish-Iraqi border

In this photo released by the Turkish Military, Turkish commandos are seen during an operation in an undisclosed location on the Turkish-Iraqi border

The president of Iraqi Kurdistan, Massoud Barzani, issued a statement Saturday warning if Turkish forces target civilians or damage any civilian infrastructure they will face large-scale resistance.

Mr. Barzani said his Kurdish security forces, called the Peshmerga, would not interfere in Turkey’s fight against Kurdish rebels inside Iraq.

Media reports over the weekend said the Peshmerga forced some Turkish soldiers to return to their bases after they strayed too far into Iraq.

However, Peshmerga spokesman Jabar Yawer denies there was any face-off between Kurdish and Turkish troops. Yawer says there has been no communication between the Peshmerga and Turkish troops. He says there are no Peshmerga in the areas of conflict, only Turkish soldiers and PKK fighters, so there are no problems between Turkish and Peshmerga forces.

So far there are no reports of civilian casualties, but Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari said Saturday the Turkish military has destroyed five bridges near the Turkish border despite promises to avoid such damage.

He said the Turkish incursion risks destabilizing the region, and he called for an immediate withdrawal of Turkish troops.

The Turkish military sent tanks and hundreds, perhaps thousands, of troops into northern Iraqi Kurdistan Thursday evening in its biggest raid into Iraq in years.

Turkey says the incursion is to prevent Kurdish PKK fighters from launching attacks into Turkey.

Kurdish officials have asked Baghdad and Washington to intervene to stop the Turkish action. Tariq Jawhar is a spokesman for the National Assembly of Kurdistan.

He said Kurdish officials want Iraq’s federal government and the U.S. to interfere to stop what he called an aggression and to seek peaceful negotiations to solve the problem between Iraq and Turkey. He said such military operations are a clear violation of Iraq’s territory.

The PKK has been fighting for autonomy in Turkey’s mainly Kurdish southeast since 1984. Turkey, the United States and the European Union have designated the group a terrorist organization.

Turkey and the PKK have released conflicting casualty figures from the current fighting, with the PKK claiming it has killed a larger number of Turkish soldiers than the Turkish military has reported.

The figures have not been independently verified.

http://www.voanews.com/english/2008-02-23-voa20.cfm




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