Posts Tagged ‘Diabetes

27
Jul
08

On This Day, 7-27-08: Frederick Banting and Charles Best

Insulin isolated in Toronto

At the University of Toronto, Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best successfully isolate insulin–a hormone they believe could prevent diabetes–for the first time. Within a year, the first human sufferers of diabetes were receiving insulin treatments, and countless lives were saved from what was previously regarded as a fatal disease.

Diabetes has been recognized as a distinct medical condition for more than 3,000 years, but its exact cause was a mystery until the 20th century. By the early 1920s, many researchers strongly suspected that diabetes was caused by a malfunction in the digestive system related to the pancreas gland, a small organ that sits on top of the liver. At that time, the only way to treat the fatal disease was through a diet low in carbohydrates and sugar and high in fat and protein. Instead of dying shortly after diagnosis, this diet allowed diabetics to live–for about a year.

A breakthrough came at the University of Toronto in the summer of 1921, when Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Best successfully isolated insulin from canine test subjects, produced diabetic symptoms in the animals, and then began a program of insulin injections that returned the dogs to normalcy. On November 14, the discovery was announced to the world.

Two months later, with the support of J.J.R. MacLeod of the University of Toronto, the two scientists began preparations for an insulin treatment of a human subject. Enlisting the aid of biochemist J.B. Collip, they were able to extract a reasonably pure formula of insulin from the pancreases of cattle from slaughterhouses. On January 23, 1921, they began treating 14-year-old Leonard Thompson with insulin injections. The diabetic teenager improved dramatically, and the University of Toronto immediately gave pharmaceutical companies license to produce insulin, free of royalties. By 1923, insulin had become widely available, and Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine.

“Insulin isolated in Toronto.” 2008. The History Channel website. 27 Jul 2008, 01:52 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=5211.

 

On This Day

1245 – Frederick II of France was deposed by a council at Lyons, which found him guilty of sacrilege.

1663 – The British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, which required all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.

1777 – The marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious American colonists fight the British.

1789 – The Department of Foreign Affairs was established by the U.S. Congress. The agency was later known as the Department of State.

1804 – The 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. With the amendment Electors were directed to vote for a President and for a Vice-President rather than for two choices for President.

1866 – Cyrus Field successfully completed the Atlantic Cable. It was an underwater telegraph from North America to Europe.

1909 – Orville Wright set a record for the longest airplane flight. He was testing the first Army airplane and kept it in the air for 1 hour 12 minutes and 40 seconds.

1914 – British troops invaded the streets of Dublin, Ireland, and began to disarm Irish rebels.

1944 – U.S. troops completed the liberation of Guam.

1955 – The Allied occupation of Austria ended.

1964 – U.S. President Lyndon Johnson sent an additional 5,000 advisers to South Vietnam.

1967 – U.S. President Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of the violence in the wake of urban rioting.

1980 – The deposed shah of Iran, Muhammad Riza Pahlavi, died in a hospital near Cairo, Egypt.

1995 – The Korean War Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, DC, by U.S. President Clinton and South Korean President Kim Young-sam.

1996 – At the Atlanta Olympics a pipe bomb exploded at the public Centennial Olympic Park. One person was killed and more than 100 were injured.

1999 – The U.S. space shuttle Discovery completed a five-day mission commanded by Air Force Col. Eileen Collins. It was the first shuttle mission to be commanded by a woman.

 

Bugs Bunny’s debut

On this day in 1940, Bugs Bunny first appears on the silver screen in “A Wild Hare.” The wisecracking rabbit had evolved through several earlier short films. As in many future installments of Bugs Bunny cartoons, “A Wild Hare” featured Bugs as the would-be dinner for frustrated hunter Elmer Fudd.

“Bugs Bunny’s debut.” 2008. The History Channel website. 27 Jul 2008, 02:00 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=3482.

First jet makes test flight

On this day in 1949, the world’s first jet-propelled airliner, the British De Havilland Comet, makes its maiden test-flight in England. The jet engine would ultimately revolutionize the airline industry, shrinking air travel time in half by enabling planes to climb faster and fly higher.

“First jet makes test flight.” 2008. The History Channel website. 27 Jul 2008, 01:53 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=52735.

Armistice ends the Korean War

After three years of a bloody and frustrating war, the United States, the People’s Republic of China, North Korea, and South Korea agree to an armistice, bringing the Korean War to an end. The armistice ended America’s first experiment with the Cold War concept of “limited war.”

“Armistice ends the Korean War.” 2008. The History Channel website. 27 Jul 2008, 01:58 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=2741.

House begins impeachment of Nixon

On this day in 1974, the House Judiciary Committee recommends that America’s 37th president, Richard M. Nixon, be impeached and removed from office. The impeachment proceedings resulted from a series of political scandals involving the Nixon administration that came to be collectively known as Watergate.

“House begins impeachment of Nixon.” 2008. The History Channel website. 27 Jul 2008, 01:48 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=59458.

 

Everything in the world exists to end up in a book.
Hosea Ballou

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23
Jan
08

On This Day, 1-23-08: Insulin

1922: Insulin injection aids diabetic patient

In Toronto, Canada, 14 year old boy Leonard Thompson becomes the first person to receive insulin as treatment for diabetes. Diabetes has been recognized as a distinct medical condition for more than 3,000 years, but its exact cause was a mystery until the 1920s.

In the early 20th century, the only way to treat the fatal disease was through a diet low in carbohydrates and sugar and high in fat and protein. Instead of dying shortly after diagnosis, this diet allowed diabetics to live for about a year. A breakthrough came at the University of Toronto in the summer of 1921, when Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Best successfully removed the pancreas-secreted protein insulin from test animals, producing diabetic symptoms, and then began a program of insulin injection that returned the animals to normalcy.

This experiment confirmed their theory that diabetes was caused by a lack of insulin, which metabolizes sugar. With the aid of other scientists, Banting and Best extracted insulin from the pancreases of cattle from slaughterhouses and began treating Leonard Thompson. The teenager improved dramatically. By 1923, insulin had become widely available, saving countless lives around the world.

Source: http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/this_day_in_history/this_day_January_23.php

1556 – An earthquake in Shanxi Province, China, was thought to have killed about 830,000 people.

1849 – English-born Elizabeth Blackwell became the first woman in America to receive medical degree. It was from the Medical Institution of Geneva, NY.

1907 – Charles Curtis, of Kansas, began serving in the United States Senate. He was the first American Indian to become a U.S. Senator. He resigned in March of 1929 to become U.S. President Herbert Hoover’s Vice President.

1920 – The Dutch government refused the demands from the Allies to hand over the ex-kaiser of Germany.

1937 – In Moscow, seventeen people went on trial during Josef Stalin’s “Great Purge.”

1941 – In America, Charles Lindbergh testifies before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, suggesting that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Hitler.

1943 – The British captured Tripoli from the Germans.

1968 – North Korea seized the U.S. Navy ship Pueblo, charging it had intruded into the nation’s territorial waters on a spying mission. The crew was released 11 months later.

1971 – In Prospect Creek Camp, AK, the lowest temperature ever recorded in the U.S. was reported as minus 80 degrees.

1973 – U.S. President Nixon announced that an accord had been reached to end the Vietnam War.

1977 – The TV mini-series “Roots,” began airing on ABC. The show was based on the Alex Haley novel.

1989 – Surrealist artist Salvador Dali died in Spain at age 84.




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