Posts Tagged ‘Hattie Caraway

12
Jan
09

On This Day, 1-12-2009: Ophelia Wyatt Caraway

January 12, 1932

First elected female senator

Ophelia Wyatt Caraway, a Democrat from Arkansas, becomes the first woman to be elected to the U.S. Senate. Caraway, born near Bakerville, Tennessee, had been appointed to the Senate two months earlier to fill the vacancy left by her late husband, Thaddeus Horatio Caraway. With the support of Huey Long, a powerful senator from Louisiana, Caraway was elected to the seat. In 1938, she was reelected. After failing to win renomination in 1944, she was appointed to the Federal Employees Compensation Commission by President Franklin Roosevelt.

Although she was the first freely elected female senator, Caraway was preceded in the Senate by Rebecca Latimer Felton, who was appointed in 1922 to fill a vacancy but never ran for election. Jeannette Rankin, elected to the House of Representatives as a pacifist from Montana in 1917, was the first woman to ever sit in Congress.

“First elected female senator.” 2009. The History Channel website. 12 Jan 2009, 02:04 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=4671.

On This Day

1773 – The first public museum in America was established in Charleston, SC.

1896 – At Davidson College, several students took x-ray photographs. They created the first X-ray photographs to be made in America.

1915 – The U.S. House of Representatives rejected a proposal to give women the right to vote.

1915 – The U.S. Congress established the Rocky Mountain National Park.

1948 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states could not discriminate against law-school applicants because of race.

1966 – U.S. President Johnson said in his State of the Union address that the United States should stay in South Vietnam until Communist aggression there was ended.

1986 – Space shuttle Columbia blasted off with a crew that included the first Hispanic-American in space, Dr. Franklin R. Chang-Diaz.

2005 – NASA launched “Deep Impact”. The spacecraft was planned to impact on Comet Tempel 1 after a six-month, 268 million-mile journey.

January 12, 1954

Dulles announces policy of “massive retaliation”

In a speech at a Council on Foreign Relations dinner in his honor, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles announces that the United States will protect its allies through the “deterrent of massive retaliatory power.” The policy announcement was further evidence of the Eisenhower administration’s decision to rely heavily on the nation’s nuclear arsenal as the primary means of defense against communist aggression.

Dulles began his speech by examining communist strategy that, he concluded, had as its goal the “bankruptcy” of the United States through overextension of its military power. Both strategically and economically, the secretary explained, it was unwise to “permanently commit U.S. land forces to Asia,” to “support permanently other countries,” or to “become permanently committed to military expenditures so vast that they lead to ‘practical bankruptcy.'” Instead, he believed a new policy of “getting maximum protection at a bearable cost” should be developed. Although Dulles did not directly refer to nuclear weapons, it was clear that the new policy he was describing would depend upon the “massive retaliatory power” of such weapons to respond to future communist acts of war.

The speech was a reflection of two of the main tenets of foreign policy under Eisenhower and Dulles. First was the belief, particularly on the part of Dulles, that America’s foreign policy toward the communist threat had been timidly reactive during the preceding Democratic administration of President Harry S. Truman. Dulles consistently reiterated the need for a more proactive and vigorous approach to rolling back the communist sphere of influence. Second was President Eisenhower’s belief that military and foreign assistance spending had to be controlled. Eisenhower was a fiscal conservative and believed that the U.S. economy and society could not long take the strain of overwhelming defense budgets. A stronger reliance on nuclear weapons as the backbone of America’s defense answered both concerns–atomic weapons were far more effective in terms of threatening potential adversaries, and they were also, in the long run, much less expensive than the costs associated with a large standing army.

“Dulles announces policy of “massive retaliation”.” 2009. The History Channel website. 12 Jan 2009, 02:09 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=2544.

12
Jan
08

On This Day 1-12-08

49 BC – Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon River signaling a war between Rome and Gaul.

1773 – The first public museum in America was established in Charleston, SC.

1908 – A wireless message was sent long-distance for the first time from the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

1915 – The U.S. House of Representatives rejected a proposal to give women the right to vote.

1915 – The U.S. Congress established the Rocky Mountain National Park.

1932 – Hattie W. Caraway became the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate.*

1940 – Soviet bombers raided cities in Finland.

1942 – U.S. President Roosevelt created the National War Labor Board.

1943 – The Office of Price Administration announced that standard frankfurters/hot dogs/wieners would be replaced by ‘Victory Sausages.’

1945 – During World War II, Soviet forces began a huge offensive against the Germans in Eastern Europe.

1948 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states could not discriminate against law-school applicants because of race.

1966 – U.S. President Johnson said in his State of the Union address that the United States should stay in South Vietnam until Communist aggression there was ended.

1966 – “Batman” debuted on ABC-TV.

1971 – “All In the Family” debuted on CBS-TV.

1986 – Space shuttle Columbia blasted off with a crew that included the first Hispanic-American in space, Dr. Franklin R. Chang-Diaz.

1998 – Linda Tripp provided Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr’s office with taped conversations between herself and former White House intern Monica Lewinsky.

It is not these well-fed long-haired men that I fear, but the pale and the hungry-looking.
Julius Caesar

Men in general are quick to believe that which they wish to be true.
Julius Caesar

Being powerful is like being a lady. If you have to tell people you are, you aren’t.
Margaret Thatcher

*Hattie Caraway maintained a “housewife” image and made no speeches on the floor of the Senate, earning the nickname “Silent Hattie.” To learn more about Hattie Caraway follow the link http://womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/blbio_caraway_hattie.htm




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