Posts Tagged ‘Huguenots

20
Sep
08

On This Day, 9-20-2008: On American Soil

September 20, 1565

First European battle on American soil

Spanish forces under Pedro Menéndez de Avilés capture the French Huguenot settlement of Fort Caroline, near present-day Jacksonville, Florida. The French, commanded by Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere, lost 135 men in the first instance of colonial warfare between European powers in America. Most of those killed were massacred on the order of Aviles, who allegedly had the slain hanged on trees beside the inscription “Not as Frenchmen, but as heretics.” Laudonniere and some 40 other Huguenots escaped.

In 1564, the French Huguenots (Protestants) had settled on the Banks of May, a strategic point on the Florida coast. King Philip II of Spain was disturbed by this challenge to Spanish authority in the New World and sent Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to Florida to expel the French heretics and establish a Spanish colony there. In early September 1565, Aviles founded San Augustin on the Florida coast, which would later grow into Saint Augustine–the oldest city in North America. Two weeks later, on September 20, he attacked and destroyed the French settlement of Fort Caroline.

The decisive French defeat encouraged France to refocus its colonial efforts in America far to the north, in what is now Quebec and Nova Scotia in Canada.

“First European battle on American soil.” 2008. The History Channel website. 20 Sep 2008, 01:48 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=5361.

 

On This Day

1958 – Martin Luther King Jr. was stabbed in the chest at a New York City department store by an apparently deranged black woman.

1962 – James Meredith, a black student, was blocked from enrolling at the University of Mississippi by Governor Ross R. Barnett. Meredith was later admitted.

1963 – U.S. President John F. Kennedy proposed a joint U.S.-Soviet expedition to the moon in a speech to the U.N. General Assembly.

1977 – The first of the “boat people” arrived in San Francisco from Southeast Asia under a new U.S. resettlement program.

1982 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan announced that the U.S., France, and Italy were going to send peacekeeping troops back to Beirut.

 

September 20, 1777

Redcoats kill sleeping Americans in Paoli Massacre

On the evening of September 20, 1777, near Paoli, Pennsylvania, General Charles Grey and nearly 5,000 British soldiers launch a surprise attack on a small regiment of Patriot troops commanded by General Anthony Wayne in what becomes known as the Paoli Massacre. Not wanting to lose the element of surprise, Grey ordered his troops to empty their muskets and to use only bayonets or swords to attack the sleeping Americans under the cover of darkness.

With the help of a Loyalist spy who provided a secret password and led them to the camp, General Grey and the British launched the successful attack on the unsuspecting men of the Pennsylvania regiment, stabbing them to death as they slept. It was also alleged that the British soldiers took no prisoners during the attack, stabbing or setting fire to those who tried to surrender. Before it was over, nearly 200 Americans were killed or wounded. The Paoli Massacre became a rallying cry for the Americans against British atrocities for the rest of the Revolutionary War.

Less than two years later, Wayne became known as “Mad Anthony” for his bravery leading an impressive Patriot assault on British cliff-side fortifications at Stony Point on the Hudson River, 12 miles from West Point. Like Grey’s attack at Paoli, Wayne’s men only used bayonets in the 30-minute night attack, which resulted in 94 dead and 472 captured British soldiers.

“Redcoats kill sleeping Americans in Paoli Massacre.” 2008. The History Channel website. 20 Sep 2008, 01:56 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=50903.

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01
Mar
08

On This Day, 3-1-08: The Weather Underground

1950: Fuchs guilty of espionage

In London, Klaus Fuchs, a German-born physicist who helped build the first two US atomic bombs, is convicted of passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. Because he committed the espionage before the USSR was designated a British enemy, he was only sentenced to 14 years.

Fuchs, a Communist, fled Germany for Britain after the rise of Adolf Hitler. In 1943, he was enlisted into the US atomic bomb program and soon was relating precise information about the US program to a Soviet spy. In 1945, Fuchs returned to England, where he was arrested by British intelligence in December 1949.

The discovery of Fuchs’ espionage came four months after the Soviets successfully tested their first atomic bomb, a development that helped motivate US President Harry Truman to approve the American hydrogen bomb program.

http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/this_day_in_history/this_day_March_1.php

1498 – Vasco de Gama landed at what is now Mozambique on his way to India.

1562 – In Vassy, France, Catholics massacred over 1,000 Huguenots. The event started the First War of Religion.

1692 – In Salem Village, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Salem witch trials began. Four women were the first to be charged.

1781 – In America, the Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation.

1803 – Ohio became the 17th U.S. state.

1815 – Napoleon returned to France from the island of Elba. He had been forced to abdicate in April of 1814.

1845 – U.S. President Tyler signed the congressional resolution to annex the Republic of Texas.

1864 – Louis Ducos de Hauron patented a machine for taking and projecting motion pictures. The machine was never built.

1867 – Nebraska became the 37th U.S. state.

1872 – The U.S. Congress authorized the creation of Yellowstone National Park. It was the world’s first national park.

1873 – E. Remington and Sons of Ilion, NY, began the manufacturing the first practical typewriter.

1912 – Captain Albert Berry made the first parachute jump from a moving airplane.

1932 – The 22-month-old son of Charles and Anne Lindbergh was kidnapped. The child was found dead in May.

1937 – U.S. Steel raised workers’ wages to $5 a day.

1950 – Klaus Fuchs was convicted of giving U.S. atomic secrets to the Soviet Union.

1954 – The United States announced that it had conducted a hydrogen bomb test on the Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.

1954 – Five U.S. congressmen were wounded when four Puerto Rican nationalists opened fire from the gallery of the U.S. House of Representatives.

1961 – The Peace Corps was established by U.S. President Kennedy.

1966 – The Soviet probe, Venera 3 crashed on the planet Venus. It was the first unmanned spacecraft to land on the surface of another planet.

1971 – A bomb exploded in a restroom in the Senate wing of the U.S. Capitol. There were no injuries. A U.S. group protesting the Vietnam War claimed responsibility.*

1974 – Seven people were indicted in connection with the Watergate break-in. The charge was conspiring to obstruct justice.

1999 – In Uganda, eight tourists were brutally murdered by Hutu rebels.

*The Weather Underground, a radical and violent splinter group of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), are held responsible for this attack.

“Hello, I’m going to read a declaration of a state of war…within the next 14 days we will attack a symbol or institution of American injustice.” ~ Bernardine Dohrn http://www.upstatefilms.org/weather/main.html

This is a full length film documentary and has graphic violent content.

“The Weather Underground”

Port Huron Statement of the Students for a Democratic Society, 1962

Introductory Note: This document represents the results of several months of writing and discussion among the membership, a draft paper, and revision by the Students for a Democratic Society national convention meeting in cf2 Port Huroncf0 , Michigan, June 11-15, 1962. It is represented as a document with which SDS officially identifies, but also as a living document open to change with our times and experiences. It is a beginning: in our own debate and education, in our dialogue with society.

published and distributed by Students for a Democratic Society 112 East 19 Street New York 3, New York GRamercy 3-2181

http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~hst306/documents/huron.html

“Violence didn’t work.”  Mark Rudd

A policy is a temporary creed liable to be changed, but while it holds good it has got to be pursued with apostolic zeal.
Mohandas Gandhi

A small body of determined spirits fired by an unquenchable faith in their mission can alter the course of history.
Mohandas Gandhi

23
Feb
08

On This Day, 2-23-08: Huguenots

1574 – France began the 5th holy war against the Huguenots.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, Protestants in France were called Huguenots, a word derived from Besançon Hugues, the leader of a revolt in Geneva.

Most Huguenots were Calvinists. During most of the 16th century, the Huguenots faced fierce persecution, which towards the end of the century led to large internal religious wars. However, in 1561 the Edict of Orleans stopped the persecution for a number of years and the Edict of St. Germain recognized them for the first time (January 17, 1562). The French Wars of Religion then began with a massacre of 1,000 Huguenots at Vassy on March 1, 1562. In 1572 thousands of Huguentos were killed in the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre and amnesty was granted the next year. The 5th holy war against the Huguenots began on February 23, 1574 and persecution continued periodically until 1598 when king Henry IV gave the Edict of Nantes which granted the Protestants full religious freedom and equal rights to Catholics.

Louis XIV in 1685 revoked the edict and declared Protestantism illegal. After this, many Huguenots fled to surrounding Protestant nations, especially to Prussia.

For more, see Sources at the bottom of the page.

1660 – Charles XI became the king of Sweden.

1792 – The Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated.

1820 – The Cato Street conspiracy was uncovered.*

1836 – In San Antonio, TX, the siege of the Alamo began.

1847 – Santa Anna was defeated at the Battle of Buena Vista in Mexico by U.S. troops under Gen. Zachary Taylor. (see note below)

1861 – U.S. President-elect Lincoln arrived secretly in Washington to take his office after an assassination attempt in Baltimore.

1861 – Texas became the 7th state to secede from the Union.

1870 – The state of Mississippi was readmitted to the Union.

1896 – The Tootsie Roll was introduced by Leo Hirshfield.

1898 – In France, Emile Zola was imprisoned for his letter, “J’accuse,” which accused the government of anti-Semitism and wrongly jailing Alfred Dreyfus.

1900 – The Battle of Hart’s Hill took place in South Africa between the Boers and the British army.**

1904 – The U.S. acquired control of the Panama Canal Zone for $10 million.

1919 – The Fascist Party was formed in Italy by Benito Mussolini.

1927 – The Federal Radio Commission began assigning frequencies, hours of operation and power allocations for radio broadcasters. On July 1, 1934 the name was changed to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

1940 – Russian troops conquered Lasi Island.

1945 – The 28th Regiment of the Fifth Marine Division of the U.S. Marines reached the top of Mount Surabachi. A photograph of these Marines raising the American flag was taken.

1963 – The 24th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. It prohibited poll taxes in federal elections.

1974 – The Symbionese Liberation Army demanded $4 million more for the release of Patty Hearst. Hearst had been kidnapped on February 4th.

1997 – NBC-TV aired “Schindler’s List.” It was completely uncensored.

I grow dizzy when I recall that the number of manufactured tanks seems to have been more important to me than the vanished victims of racism.
Albert Speer

In all my activities as Armament Minister I never once visited a labor camp, and cannot, therefore, give any information about them.
Albert Speer

I knew that the National Socialist Party was anti-Semitic, and I knew that the Jews were being evacuated from Germany.
Albert Speer

Sources, Huguenots

http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html

http://faculty.ucc.edu/egh-damerow/huguenots.htm

See Also: http://huguenot.netnation.com/general/huguenot.htm

*http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PRcato.htm

**http://www.indopedia.org/Boer_War.html

About Zachary Taylor, a few days ago I posted about a park called Tower Hill ( http://johnrandals.wordpress.com/2008/02/11/tower-hill/ ).  Click on the picture of the plaque and look at the names.




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