Posts Tagged ‘Republic of Texas

22
Oct
08

On This Day, 10-22-2008: Cuban Missile Crisis

October 22, 1962

Cuban Missile Crisis

In a televised speech of extraordinary gravity, President John F. Kennedy announces that U.S. spy planes have discovered Soviet missile bases in Cuba. These missile sites–under construction but nearing completion–housed medium-range missiles capable of striking a number of major cities in the United States, including Washington, D.C. Kennedy announced that he was ordering a naval “quarantine” of Cuba to prevent Soviet ships from transporting any more offensive weapons to the island and explained that the United States would not tolerate the existence of the missile sites currently in place. The president made it clear that America would not stop short of military action to end what he called a “clandestine, reckless, and provocative threat to world peace.”

The Cuban Missile Crisis seemed at the time a clear victory for the United States, but Cuba emerged from the episode with a much greater sense of security. A succession of U.S. administrations have honored Kennedy’s pledge not to invade Cuba, and the communist island nation situated just 80 miles from Florida remains a thorn in the side of U.S. foreign policy. The removal of antiquated Jupiter missiles from Turkey had no detrimental effect on U.S. nuclear strategy, but the Cuban Missile Crisis convinced a humiliated USSR to commence a massive nuclear buildup. In the 1970s, the Soviet Union reached nuclear parity with the United States and built intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of striking any city in the United States.

“Cuban Missile Crisis.” 2008. The History Channel website. 22 Oct 2008, 11:27 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=7058.

On This Day

1746 – The College of New Jersey was officially chartered. It later became known as Princeton University.

1836 – Sam Houston was inaugurated as the first constitutionally elected president of the Republic of Texas.

1844 – This day is recognized as “The Great Disappointment” among those who practiced Millerism. The world was expected to come to an end according to the followers of William Miller.

1934 – Charles “Pretty Boy” Floyd, the notorious bank robber, was shot and killed by Federal agents in East Liverpool, OH.

1954 – The Federal Republic of Germany was invited to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

1968 – Apollo 7 splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. The spacecraft had orbited the Earth 163 times.

1975 – Air Force Technical Sergeant Leonard Matlovich was discharged after publicly declaring his homosexuality. His tombstone reads ” “A gay Vietnam Veteran. When I was in the military they gave me a medal for killing two men and a discharge for loving one.”

1979 – The ousted Shah of Iran, Mohammad Riza Pahlavi was allowed into the U.S. for medical treatment.

1998 – Pakistan’s carpet weaving industry announced that they would begin to phase out child labor.

October 22, 1775

Peyton Randolph dies

After years of poor health, Peyton Randolph, former president of the Continental Congress, dies on this day in 1775 at the age of 54.

On September 5, 1774, Randolph was elected by unanimous vote as the first president of the Continental Congress. He resigned as president in October 1774 to attend a meeting of the Virginia House of Burgesses but remained a powerful and influential figure within Congress. He returned to Congress in May 1775 and was again elected president, but was forced to resign less than one month later due to his failing health.

Randolph briefly returned to Congress in September 1775, but died just one month later in Philadelphia. He did not live to see America achieve independence, a goal toward which he had worked for most of his adult life.

“Peyton Randolph dies.” 2008. The History Channel website. 22 Oct 2008, 11:40 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=51324.

October 22, 1965

173rd Airborne trooper saves comrades

In action this day near Phu Cuong, about 35 miles northwest of Saigon, PFC Milton Lee Olive III of Company B, 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry, throws himself on an enemy grenade and saves four soldiers, including his platoon leader, 1st Lt. James Sanford.

The action came during a patrol that made contact with Communist forces on the southern fringes of the infamous “Iron Triangle,” a traditional Communist stronghold. Private Olive’s body absorbed the full, deadly blast of the grenade and he died saving his comrades. Lieutenant Sanford later said of Olive’s act that “It was the most incredible display of selfless bravery I ever witnessed.” Olive, a native of Chicago, was only 18 years old when he died; he received the Medal of Honor posthumously six months later. The city of Chicago honored its fallen hero by naming a junior college, a lakefront park, and a portion of the McCormick Place convention center after him.

“173rd Airborne trooper saves comrades.” 2008. The History Channel website. 22 Oct 2008, 11:39 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=1436.

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13
Oct
08

On This Day, 10-13-2008: The Republic of Texas

October 13, 1845

Texans ratify a state constitution and approve annexation

On this day in 1845, a majority of the citizens of the independent Republic of Texas approve a proposed constitution, that when accepted by the Congress, will make Texas the 28th American state.

Despite having fought a war to win their independence from their old colonial master, Mexico, the people of Texas had long been eager to become part of the United States. Under the leadership of the Republic’s first president, Sam Houston, Texas had proclaimed its independence from Mexico in 1836, while simultaneously indicating a desire to be annexed to the United States. But while many Americans were willing to see the massive Texan Republic join their nation, Congress refused at the urging of influential northern abolitionists who claimed that Texas was controlled by a “slaveocracy conspiracy” of southerners.

The political climate shifted in the favor of Texas with the presidential election of 1844, when the victory of James K. Polk was widely seen as a mandate from the people to bring Texas into the American fold. But before Polk could take office, President John Tyler beat him to the punch by securing a congressional resolution calling for annexation. With the strong approval of most Texans, Polk signed the legislation making Texas an American state on December 29, 1845. Ominously, the Mexican minister had meanwhile warned the U.S. that his nation would consider annexation an act of war and demanded his passport in preparation for departure. Mexico and the United States would be at war within a year.

“Texans ratify a state constitution and approve annexation.” 2008. The History Channel website. 12 Oct 2008, 04:50 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=4305.

On This Day

54 A.D. – The Roman emperor Claudius I died after being poisoned by his wife, Agrippina.

1775 – The U.S. Continental Congress ordered the construction of a naval fleet.

1792 – The cornerstone of the Executive Mansion was laid in Washington, DC. The building became known as the White House in 1818.

1812 – American forces were defeated at the Battle of Queenstown Heights. The British victory effectively ended an further U.S. invasion of Canada.

1943 – During World War II, Italy signed an armistice with the Allies and declared war on Germany.

1944 – During World War II, British and Greek advance units landed at Piraeus.

1977 – Four Palestinians hijacked an Lufthansa airliner to Somalia. They demanded the release of members of the Red Army Faction.

1981 – Egyptian voters elected Vice President Hosni Mubarak as the new president one week after Anwar Sadat was assassinated.

1990 – Le Duc Tho died at the age of 79. He was a co-founder of the Vietnamese Communist Party.

October 13, 1843

B’nai B’rith founded

B’nai B’rith, the oldest Jewish service organization in the world, is founded in New York City by Henry Jones and 11 others. B’nai B’rith, meaning “Sons of the Covenant,” organized its first lodge in November, and Isaac Dittenhoefer was elected the first president. The fraternal organization went on to become a national leader in charity work and disaster relief, and in 1913 it formed the Anti-Defamation League to combat anti-Semitism. Today, some 500,000 men and women are members of B’nai B’rith.

“B’nai B’rith founded.” 2008. The History Channel website. 12 Oct 2008, 05:00 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=tdihArticleCategory&id=5433.

05
Sep
08

On This Day, 9-5-2008: Black September

Arab terrorists take Israeli hostages at the Olympics

In the early morning hours of September 5, six members of the Arab terrorist group known as Black September dressed in the Olympic sweat suits of Arab nations and jumped the fence surrounding the Olympic village in Munich, Germany, carrying bags filled with guns. Although guards spotted them, they paid little attention because athletes often jumped the fence during the competition to return to their living quarters.

Twenty hours after Black September had begun their attack, a German police official, 5 Palestinian terrorists, and 11 Israeli athletes lay dead. Three of the terrorists who survived were imprisoned but were set free a month later when Arabs hijacked a Lufthansa 727 and demanded their release.

A few days after the tragic event at the Olympics, Israel retaliated with air strikes against Syria and Lebanon, killing 66 people and wounding dozens. In addition, Israel sent out assassination squads to hunt down members of Black September while Israeli troops broke through the Lebanese border, igniting the heaviest fighting since the Six-Day War of 1967.

“Arab terrorists take Israeli hostages at the Olympics.” 2008. The History Channel website. 5 Sep 2008, 06:05 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=1117.

On This Day

1698 – Russia’s Peter the Great imposed a tax on beards.

1793 – In France, the “Reign of Terror” began. The National Convention enacted measures to repress the French Revolutionary activities.

1836 – Sam Houston was elected as the first president of the Republic of Texas.

1877 – Sioux chief Crazy Horse was killed by the bayonet of a U.S. soldier. The chief allegedly resisted confinement to a jail cell.

1905 – The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed by Russia and Japan to end the Russo-Japanese War. The settlement was mediated by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in New Hampshire.

1914 – The Battle of the Marne began. The Germans, British and French fought for six days killing half a million people.

1917 – Federal raids were carried out in 24 cities on International Workers of the World (IWW) headquarters. The raids were prompted by suspected anti-war activities within the labor organization.

1953 – The first privately operated atomic reactor opened in Raleigh, NC.

1957 – Jack Kerouac’s “On the Road” was first published.

1975 – A Secret Service agent foiled an assassination attempt against U.S. U.S. President Gerald R. Ford. Lynette A. “Squeaky” Fromme was a follower of Charles Manson, who was incarcerated at the time. 17 days later, Sara Jane Moore attempted to assassinate Ford.

1983 – U.S. President Reagan denounced the Soviet Union for shooting down a Korean Air Lines. Reagan demanded that the Soviet Union pay reparations for the act that killed 269 people.

September 5, 1969

Calley charged for My Lai massacre

Lt. William Calley is charged with six specifications of premeditated murder in the death of 109 Vietnamese civilians at My Lai in March 1968. Calley, a platoon leader in Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade (Light) of the 23rd (Americal) Division had led his men in a massacre of Vietnamese civilians, including women and children, at My Lai 4, a cluster of hamlets that made up Son My village in Son Tinh District in Quang Ngai Province in the coastal lowlands of I Corps Tactical Zone on March 16, 1968. The company had been conducting a search and destroy mission as part of the yearlong Operation Wheeler/Wallowa (November 1967 through November 1968). In search of the 48th Viet Cong (VC) Local Force Battalion, the unit entered Son My village but found only women, children, and old men. Frustrated by unanswered losses due to snipers and mines, the soldiers took out their anger on the villagers, indiscriminately shooting people as they ran from their huts and systematically rounding up the survivors, allegedly leading them to nearby ditch where they were executed.

Reportedly, the killing was only stopped when Warrant Officer Hugh Thompson, an aero-scout helicopter pilot landed his helicopter between the Americans and the fleeing South Vietnamese, confronting the soldiers and blocking them from further action against the villagers. The incident was subsequently covered up, but eventually came to light a year later. An Army board of inquiry, headed by Lt. Gen. William Peers, investigated the massacre and produced a list of 30 persons who knew of the atrocity, but only 14, including Calley and his company commander, Captain Ernest Medina, were charged with crimes. All eventually had their charges dismissed or were acquitted by courts-martial except Calley, whose platoon allegedly killed 200 innocents. He was found guilty of personally murdering 22 civilians and sentenced to life imprisonment, but his sentence was reduced to 20 years by the Court of Military Appeals and further reduced later to 10 years by the Secretary of the Army. Proclaimed by much of the public as a “scapegoat,” Calley was paroled by President Richard Nixon in 1974 after having served about a third of his 10-year sentence.

“Calley charged for My Lai massacre.” 2008. The History Channel website. 5 Sep 2008, 06:05 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=1337.

01
Mar
08

On This Day, 3-1-08: The Weather Underground

1950: Fuchs guilty of espionage

In London, Klaus Fuchs, a German-born physicist who helped build the first two US atomic bombs, is convicted of passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. Because he committed the espionage before the USSR was designated a British enemy, he was only sentenced to 14 years.

Fuchs, a Communist, fled Germany for Britain after the rise of Adolf Hitler. In 1943, he was enlisted into the US atomic bomb program and soon was relating precise information about the US program to a Soviet spy. In 1945, Fuchs returned to England, where he was arrested by British intelligence in December 1949.

The discovery of Fuchs’ espionage came four months after the Soviets successfully tested their first atomic bomb, a development that helped motivate US President Harry Truman to approve the American hydrogen bomb program.

http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/this_day_in_history/this_day_March_1.php

1498 – Vasco de Gama landed at what is now Mozambique on his way to India.

1562 – In Vassy, France, Catholics massacred over 1,000 Huguenots. The event started the First War of Religion.

1692 – In Salem Village, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Salem witch trials began. Four women were the first to be charged.

1781 – In America, the Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation.

1803 – Ohio became the 17th U.S. state.

1815 – Napoleon returned to France from the island of Elba. He had been forced to abdicate in April of 1814.

1845 – U.S. President Tyler signed the congressional resolution to annex the Republic of Texas.

1864 – Louis Ducos de Hauron patented a machine for taking and projecting motion pictures. The machine was never built.

1867 – Nebraska became the 37th U.S. state.

1872 – The U.S. Congress authorized the creation of Yellowstone National Park. It was the world’s first national park.

1873 – E. Remington and Sons of Ilion, NY, began the manufacturing the first practical typewriter.

1912 – Captain Albert Berry made the first parachute jump from a moving airplane.

1932 – The 22-month-old son of Charles and Anne Lindbergh was kidnapped. The child was found dead in May.

1937 – U.S. Steel raised workers’ wages to $5 a day.

1950 – Klaus Fuchs was convicted of giving U.S. atomic secrets to the Soviet Union.

1954 – The United States announced that it had conducted a hydrogen bomb test on the Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.

1954 – Five U.S. congressmen were wounded when four Puerto Rican nationalists opened fire from the gallery of the U.S. House of Representatives.

1961 – The Peace Corps was established by U.S. President Kennedy.

1966 – The Soviet probe, Venera 3 crashed on the planet Venus. It was the first unmanned spacecraft to land on the surface of another planet.

1971 – A bomb exploded in a restroom in the Senate wing of the U.S. Capitol. There were no injuries. A U.S. group protesting the Vietnam War claimed responsibility.*

1974 – Seven people were indicted in connection with the Watergate break-in. The charge was conspiring to obstruct justice.

1999 – In Uganda, eight tourists were brutally murdered by Hutu rebels.

*The Weather Underground, a radical and violent splinter group of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), are held responsible for this attack.

“Hello, I’m going to read a declaration of a state of war…within the next 14 days we will attack a symbol or institution of American injustice.” ~ Bernardine Dohrn http://www.upstatefilms.org/weather/main.html

This is a full length film documentary and has graphic violent content.

“The Weather Underground”

Port Huron Statement of the Students for a Democratic Society, 1962

Introductory Note: This document represents the results of several months of writing and discussion among the membership, a draft paper, and revision by the Students for a Democratic Society national convention meeting in cf2 Port Huroncf0 , Michigan, June 11-15, 1962. It is represented as a document with which SDS officially identifies, but also as a living document open to change with our times and experiences. It is a beginning: in our own debate and education, in our dialogue with society.

published and distributed by Students for a Democratic Society 112 East 19 Street New York 3, New York GRamercy 3-2181

http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~hst306/documents/huron.html

“Violence didn’t work.”  Mark Rudd

A policy is a temporary creed liable to be changed, but while it holds good it has got to be pursued with apostolic zeal.
Mohandas Gandhi

A small body of determined spirits fired by an unquenchable faith in their mission can alter the course of history.
Mohandas Gandhi




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